I make notes like this for all tasks I do at work, not just for debugging, but also find it very useful for implementing new features, preparing presentations, meetings. I don’t just log what happened, but also log all thoughts, ideas, TODOs, etc.
I add screenshots of code, screenshots of apps, links, copy code blocks, queries I used, command outputs, various log snippets, file names. I also use highlighters a lot, and draw stuff.
Currently, I use OneNote for all this. I used to use pen and paper in the past, but when it’s digital, I can Copy-Paste or screenshot anything. I recommend everyone to try it. :-)